Thursday, September 7, 2017

History of Western Wheel Works on Impossible Engineering!

Last summer through the wonders of social media I was contacted by a UK-based production company that makes the Discovery Science Channel program Impossible Engineering. They were working on a new episode focused on all the engineering advances incorporated into the new Tesla factory and they needed a bicycle historian!

Why you ask? Because technologies developed by bicycle manufactures in the later 19th century have shaped a surprising number of industries. All of the early automobiles were heavily reliant on bicycle technologies. A short list includes: seamless steel tubing, ball bearings, differential steering, pneumatic tires, wire spoked wheels, and industrial stamping. It's the last one of those that Impossible Engineering was interested in. The Tesla factory uses massive stamping machines that shape push out car body panels every few seconds. Bicycle factories didn't invent machine stamping, but Chicago's Western Wheel Works was the first to take the technology and scale it up to create a competitive edge.

This images comes from an 1897 Western Wheel Works catalog.

Prior to parts being stamped the main parts of a bicycle frame were all forged or drop forged (which increased the strength). Forging is a labor-intensive and wasteful process. Stamping was quick and cheap by comparison and it produced reasonably strong bicycle components. Western Wheel Works became the largest bicycle producer in the country by the later 1890's partially by adopting and perfecting stamping before everyone else. By 1899 they were churning out 160,000 bicycles per from the largest bicycle factory in the world (375,000 square feet, 1,500 employees). After the big bicycle bust of 1900 the WWW factory eventually became the Dr. Scholl's factory. Today parts of it still exist as the upscale Cobbler's Square Lofts on 1350 N. Wells St. in Chicago.

One of my all-time favorite bicycle images is this Crescent (made by Western Wheel Works) poster made in 1901 by artist Frederick Winthrop Ramsdell.

Here's the excerpt from the full episode where I talk about Western Wheel Works:

Sunday, March 26, 2017

Cycling 400 miles on the Natchez Trace

As a historian I had some vague recollection of the origins of the Natchez Trace which I was able to bring into focus with a bit of research. The Trace follows a natural geologic ridgeline from Nashville, TN to Natchez, MS. Native Americans (the Chickasaw and Choctaw tribes in particular) originally established the trace for easier north-south travel. In 1801, the Army began widening and improving the trail, eventually making it traversable by wagon. It still took 3 weeks by wagon to cover the length of the Trace. In 1809, 3 years after the completion of the Lewis and Clark expedition, Meriwether Lewis was traveling on part of the Trace on a trip to Washington, D.C. He met an untimely end near the northern terminus of Trace either by suicide or murder. The true cause of his death will probably never be established definitively.

As a cyclist I knew precisely nothing about the potential of the Trace for bicycle training and touring. Today the Natchez Trace is designated an All-American Road and is maintained by the National Park Service. The full route was not completed until 2005. Commercial traffic is prohibited and a limited number of access points keep overall traffic low- particularly in the more remote sections. General lack of winter road damage means impeccable surfaces for riding.  Better yet, there are no stop signs along the length of the Trace, making it perfect for long, steady days in the saddle. There isn't even any development allowed right along the trace: no gas stations, no homes, just a couple of basic Park Service waysides. In short: a cycling nirvana (as long as it isn't midsummer).

Most of the pavement looked like this!

In January my Endurance Company team announced a training trip along the length of the Trace coordinated with my friend and top long-course triathlete, Andrew Starykowicz who on the comeback trail after serious injuries resulting from being hit by a car last fall. Fortunately a portion of the trip fell over my spring break from Illinois Wesleyan University. Having done a previous training trip to the Appalachian mountains with Andrew I had a pretty good idea what I was getting into. I've been struggling with a strange -and as of yet- undiagnosed medical issue where I start gagging during hard exercise.  This caused me to do very little in the way of training during the fall and early winter. Fortunately I can still exercise as long as the effort remains low to moderate.  In short, I was in need of a swift kick in the low-volume training butt.

Starky reached out to some of his cycling friends which included current and former pro triathletes, older guys with lots of experience and few up and comers. I can't say enough good things about this group.  When people get really fatigued after multiple 100 mile days your true colors start to show through and this group remained great to ride with (even when we had 9 of us plus all of gear and bikes in a 12 passenger van).

Two-tiers of bikes that we couldn't fit inside!

For me the riding shook out this way: 100 miles, 160 miles, 75 miles, 56 miles. The great majority of this riding was just quality, steady-state riding. On day one I rode half of one of Andrew's pyramid intervals. Even drafting 3 people back it was a challenge. There were also a few ill-advised state line sprints along the way! The 160 mile day is my personal longest by far.  I've occasionally done rides in the 120 mile range as over-distance Ironman training. 160 was a long day, but we rode very conservatively and had multiple van re-fueling stops built in. I was able to ride 400 miles without a gagging episode, but my low back was giving me some issues. To avoid a spasm where I couldn't ride at all I rode 1/2 a day and took a turn driving the van to the northern end of the Trace. The pace for my group over the four days was right around 20 mph. The northern part of the trace has nice, long climbs, but nothing steep.

So why subject your body to this sort of shock and awe training block- especially early in the season? Almost everyone on this trip was a parent. Parenting comes first almost all of the time. A training trip like this flips those priorities where all you need to accomplish in a given day is the miles to get to the next town. From a physiology standpoint you can make a good argument for doing two really big days back to back. At that point recovery is needed to reap the benefits of the stimulus of all that riding. A casual 75 miles felt easy, but was still a far cry from real recovery. Probably the reason most coaches prescribe overdistance training for long course triathletes is just the psychology of having gone further- or in this case, much further than race distance. I had done no rides yet this year over 75 miles, but since that was our "easy" day after 160 miles it seemed easy in comparison. Lastly, I am a fan of sport-specific blocks sprinkled throughout the training cycle. If you want (or need) to see gains in a single sport one of the best ways to do that is to incorporate sport-specific 7-10 day blocks.

The big takeaway here for me was the amazing potential of the Natchez Trace for this type of training (touring too). Since it is straight with milemarkers it is easy to accommodate multiple paces. My season remains up in the air until I get this gagging issue ironed out. My goal now is to be healthy soon enough to put in the training necessary to be competitive at the 70.3 World Championships in September.

Sunday, January 22, 2017

New Partnership with Endurance Company!

Greetings bloggy world, it's been awhile! I've got some news for ya that deserves a better platform than a long-winded Facebook post. Starting this year I am entering into a new partnership with Endurance Company. Endurance Company is a multisport coaching business started by my friend, Joe Company, in 2010.  Up until about a year ago Endurance Company was based in Missouri and I only had vague awareness that the business was doing well as I would see ECo jerseys at races around the Midwest. Recently Joe has relocated to Bloomington. We partnered on a weekend camp last year and a few other local tri things. This year I plan to be much more involved with ECo.  I've already begun attending some of the local Team ECo workouts and plan to assist with camps, clinics and mentoring of ECo athletes. I will also be racing on the newly-formed ECo Elite race team and getting workouts from Joe.

Me, Joe, Ryan Giuliano and Andrew Starykowicz at the Central IL Multisport Expo

I'm excited about this opportunity for a number of reasons. First off, I believe it will be easy to work with Joe since we approaching training and coaching in a similar manner. Both of us are very evidence-driven and highly reliant on leveraging science for performance. Joe has a doctorate in biomedical science and a master’s degree in exercise physiology. While this is clearly not as good as a degree in Library Science, I still allow him to talk to me. ;) From 2003-2007 Joe raced as a professional triathlete. My own 3-year stint as a pro wrapped up at the end of the 2015 season. I knew Joe and I had raced a few times at the old Tri-Shark triathlon (our local sprint race). I just hit up and found that we actually had quite a few head-to-head races over the years. This is what I found:






IM Florida








Spirit of Racine 70.3




Steelhead 70.3








Evergreen Oly



As you can see, there was quite a bit of back and forth here! Thus far no pics of me passing Joe mid-race have been unearthed, but there will be major prizes (read expired gels) for whomever locates one! You don't need to ask around much to find out that not all professional triathletes make good coaches. Some do, some don't. A long racing career with some level of success is one positive indicator of a good coach. Background and devotion to continuing education is another. Longevity of a coaching company is probably one of the best indicators. People that don't take coaching seriously or just don't have the aptitude don't survive for too many years. I just went through the tedious (and expensive) process to renew my own USAT Coaching certificate. It is a pain, but it forces me to do 15 hours of continuing education every 2 years and I always learn something in that process.

On top of all this, Endurance Company is also partnering with my favorite LBS, Bloomington Cycle and Fitness. I have raced CX, gravel, and MTB for BCF for many years now. They are also the presenting sponsor for my Miller Chill cyclocross race. BCF is moving into an awesome new facility this spring and ECo will share office space with them as well as run some of the workouts in the new bike studio.

Bring it 2017, let's see what you got!

The BCF Crew plus the ECo crew at the groundbreaking for the new shop!

Wednesday, September 23, 2015

Ironman Vichy Race Report

I traveled to Vichy, France for my first international race and I tore that shit up, bro! I did the stars and stripes proud by being the first American across the finish line! I smoked more than half of the other pros in the race enroute to finishing as the 10th male pro and racking up some solid Kona Ranking System points. Word.

If you read enough triathlon race reports -professional or otherwise- you start to develop a pretty good b.s. detector. I do get tired of all the friggin spin, whiny excuses, and convenient omissions written into race reports. An opening paragraph like the one above should raise some eyebrows to anyone who knows the sport. Here's the thing: all that stuff about my race at Ironman Vichy is true, but it also has a heavy dose of spin and a few convenient omissions. I plan on giving you the full spin-less report below.

To get us started, it is definitely true that this was my first international race. In fact, it was only the second time ever that I have traveled internationally. This actually plays a big part in setting up my race performance. My primary reason for being in France was to deliver a paper related to my sabbatical research at the International Cycling History Conference. If you are interested about that part of my trip, I wrote about it here. Also team sponsor Sammy's set me up with a French Look tri bike this season, so it only seemed appropriate to go race the hell out of it on home soil! Since a trip like this was quite possibly a once-in-a-lifetime experience I planned on experiencing as much of French culture as possible regardless if that might be detrimental to my race. What this meant in practice is that I partook of a wide variety of French wines at just about every lunch and dinner while I was there. I ate an obscene amount of carbs in all sorts of wonderful bready configurations. In the 10 days prior to the race I only got in 4 short workouts. It seemed like a better idea to go out and see as much as Paris as possible rather than the alternative of staring at the bottom of another pool for an hour a day! Some late nights coupled with major jet lag also did not make for an ideal taper! I hope this doesn't fall into the category of the whiny excuses I just called out above, but rather just gives you a sense of how I approached the whole trip and race.

Since this was a new Ironman race (it was a Challenge brand race for 2 or 3 years prior to 2015) I want to include more course detail and logistics than I usually would.  I found very little in the way of English-language information about the race other than the official site. More than likely the cheapest overseas flights for Americans will into Paris. From there you can either take a high-speed train (TGV) to get you somewhat close to Vichy followed by a slower regional train. I was coming from southern France, so I took the TGV into Lyon and then rented a car and drove 2 hours to Vichy (a fun? experience in and of itself). Flying into a nearby Eurpoean city like Geneva, Switzerland would also work for this race. Dragging my bike case plus luggage around everywhere was a huge pain in the ass. If you can figure out a race bike rental or way to get your bike to Vichy without taking it with you everywhere I would recommend doing it!

Once in Vichy I lucked out with an amazing homestay. Race organizers will help out professionals by coordinating local homestays. This can be a real hit-or-miss system, but it is definitely one of the unique aspects of professional racing. For me homestays help to humanize race travel which can be lonely and a real grind. I stayed with Marie-Laure Morel in her apartment in Vichy. Truthfully this was one of the best parts of the trip. Marie spoke very good English, while I can only manage bits and pieces of broken French. Staying with Marie was the anti-tourist part of my trip. She was great for bouncing all sorts of French cultural and language questions off of. Sitting in a bar along the river/lake that we swam in with a bunch of Marie's friends one night before the race was one of the highlights of the trip for me.

Alright, let's start breaking this race down. Vichy is unique because they run a 70.3 race on Saturday and then a full Ironman the next day.  This is an interesting strategy that WTC may end up trying elsewhere. There were 30 male pros on the start list. About 25 of these actually showed up to race, so a pretty big pro field for a first-year event with a smaller prize purse. Average highs for Vichy at the end of August are mid-70s which sounded wonderful when I signed up. As luck would have it, a heat wave hit just for race weekend raising temps to a high of 95 degrees on race day (here's where the conscientious race report writer must be careful not to start with the excuses and general whineyness).

My over-arching goal for this race was just to make the most of the experience. Going into race day I said that my goal was to race all day with gratitude and gratefulness for this opportunity. This is a great strategy, but still a challenge to adhere to when the deep pain of Ironman racing sets in. Given the course and my fitness level I thought I would probably finish somewhere in the 9:20s and maybe top 25 overall on an average day.  That did not happen.....uh-oh we just lost some more spin.

Great venue for a triathlon!


On race morning it was pretty warm even before the sun came up. I'll try to highlight the important differences between standard WTC rules and the French Triathlon Federation rules that this race operated under. One of the first is that the wetsuit cut-off for the pro race was 24C/75F (standard WTC pro wetsuit cut-off is 72 degrees). Temperatures were right at the cut-off, which I find way too warm for a wetsuit. The IM Vichy swim is held in a lake that is also used for rowing competitions. The swim was a strange two loop affair- it was essentially two long, narrow loops and you got out of the water between loops, ran a bit, then dove in off the end of another dock. Navigation was a bit tricky, but I liked that I didn't have to swim around people on the second loop. The swim was a deep-water start and I had a decent warm-up before the pro men went off with pro women 2 minutes behind us. Since my swim background was as a sprinter I never have a problem making the first swim pack initially. On the other hand, I have lots of problems staying there for very long!  One thing that is very different in a pro race is that the field is smaller and staying in a pack is much harder. About 500 yards in and I had already fallen off the lead pack and was with a much smaller chase pack. As the race played out I ended up leading more than drafting, but this was because most of the other pros were ahead of me. I was definitely overheating in the water, but other than that swimming ok.  I put in some extra effort on the second loop. I'm pretty sure I stayed ahead of all the pro women as well as the fastest age group swimmers who could have made up a 10 minute deficit.  My swim time was a not-very-pro: 1:02:33. The course was a little long since the best pros "only" swam 51's and there were a couple that can go sub-50.

If I've lost a bit of swim fitness over the last few years, I have made it up many times over on the bike. Cycling used to be my weakness, but in the last few years I have been able to turn in much better bike splits for long races. The IM Vichy bike course is in a picturesque valley ringed by mountains. It is not that difficult on paper.  It is 2 loops with about 3400 feet of climbing. It is an easier bike course than IM Wisconsin or Lake Placid, probably similar to (or a little easier than) IM CDA or Louisville. None of the climbs are very steep or very long. There are many turns and roundabouts which do sap your speed. Some of the road surfaces were pretty rough as well. On this day wind and heat played a big factor on the second loop.

This is how I will remember the Vichy bike course. This and wind.

Compared to the swim, I felt really good starting out on the bike. My long rides and a couple half Ironman races had went pretty well leading up to this race. Again I was caught out somewhat alone for the first part of the race. Most of the male pros were out of sight and no age group pelotons had caught me (yet). For most of the first loop the temps were reasonable and the wind was low. Part-way into the first loop the first pack of lead age-group racers caught me- meaning they had made up 10 minutes overall on me (but, wait, I thought you were the 10th overall pro?! WTH?). Here it is worth pointing out that the official French Triathlon Federation drafting rules are quite lax compared to stated WTC rules. For Vichy the bike draft zone was 10 meters instead of 12 meters. The real kicker though was at the pro meeting when the head official explained that if you are close to being inside of 10 meters the officials will blow a whistle at you instead of issuing a penalty. From what I saw the best age groupers were well aware of the lax rules and rode more like 5 meters apart and then moved back if they got whistled at. Frustrating (and possibly whiny) but if you are an American considering this race you should know what to expect until the WTC rules are actually enforced at all their events. So, first lap, no issues, very good power, little to no back pain (which has become a chronic problem for me). I moved up at least one or two positions in the pro field and was able to adhere to my nutrition plan. No pros caught me because most of them were still ahead of me. The course was gorgeous which definitely helped. We rode past sunflower fields and through roundabouts that made the race feel like the Tour de France. The race worked its way through a handful of quaint small towns each loop.

Central Illinois? No, Central France!

News flash: the sun is hot.

Beginning the second loop things were still going well. I soon saw fellow American Pro AJ Baucco's Ventum bicycle (its kind of hard to miss!) on the back of a truck. The bike looked ok, so I hoped it wasn't due to a crash. Turns out he tubular flat which wouldn't seal up. This unfortunate mechanical was of great assistance in moving me up towards that first American finisher thing I mentioned (are we even spinning anymore? I can't tell.).  Somewhere around mile 70 I started losing power and my back started hurting to the point where it was affecting my race. By this time it was also pretty hot and windy, so I was moving slower. Nutrition was ok, but a few of the aid stations gave me only 1/2 full bottles of sports drink which may have shorted me a bit on calories/carbs and fluid. Somewhere around the 4 hour mark the wheels really came off. Incidentally this was also about the time that Natascha Badmann went around me on the bike. She was in second in the women's race at the time and had made up the two minute difference in our start times, plus my lead over her swim time. Natasha is one of my all-time favorite professional triathletes.  She has 6 Ironman World titles to her name (early 2000s). She almost has to have the record for the longest pro triathlon career. At age 48 she is still turning in top overall finishes and wants to race Kona as a professional when she is 50! She said something encouraging when she went around me which is classic Natasha! I tried to match her pace for awhile, but the legs and back weren't having any of it. My last hour on the bike was miserable suffering. My average power dropped nearly 50 watts which should never, ever happen. So why did it happen? First I was in this race to race, not sight-see. I raced the first half of the bike aggressively at the top end of what I could theoretically ride it, but I must not have had the deep bike fitness to back it up. Second, my low back continues to give me lots of problems on and off the bike. After my back muscles hit a certain point of fatigue I can't generate power on the bike. I lost many places and quite a bit of time during that last hour. Coming into T2, I was really surprised to see that I had rode a 5:02 (22.3mph). For me this ended up being the highlight of my race. I was still able to turn in a 5:02 on a rolling, windy, and hot course with one terrible final hour. Under average conditions I thought I would ride 4:45-4:50 for that course, so I guess pretty ok all things considered?

Coming into T2


A few weeks out from race day and I can clearly and vividly remember that I did not feel pretty ok when I hit the change tent. It is common for both pros and amateurs to doubt whether they can keep going and finish the race. I was hunched over from back pain and not sure I could run. Anytime I thought about possibly dropping out I remembered that I had to come home to my wife and kids who sacrificed a lot for me to even have the opportunity to race in France. I couldn't imagine going home and trying to explain to a 7 year-old and a 4-year old why I quit during the race.  The fact that the changing tent was probably up over 100 degrees inside did not help things. In any case, I got my running shoes on and headed out into the sun. Usually my back loosens up when I start running. It took longer than usual this race, but eventually that pain was supplanted by the regular pain of the Ironman marathon. #winning?

There was a long stretch of no shade on this bridge and immediately after.

This isn't some strange French cultural practice. It was just crystal clear skies and relentless sun.

The IM Vichy run course consists of 4 very flat laps that go around the lake, through parks, and past some historical sites. The fact that a good deal of the course was shaded (at least 50%) was an absolute godsend. Unfortunately, unlike every other IM that I have done, this one had no ice at the aid stations. I also learned about another French Triathlon Federation rule when an official yelled at me for not having my jersey zipped all the way up! Seriously it's a rule. They had officials who could have been out enforcing a fair bike leg yelling at competitors for having a partially unzipped jersey. C'est la vie. Like most normal homo sapiens I hate running in extreme temps. For awhile I thought the flat course and shade was going let me turn in a decent marathon. My first of four laps was actually pretty close to on-pace, but things fell apart again although probably not quite as bad as on the bike. Natascha was struggling on the run and I caught her on the second loop (she later bounced back and went around me again!). Because of the four loop format spectators were quite good for this race. For part of each loop we were on a lakefront gravel path that had outdoor bar patio seating right alongside it. The French spectators really seemed to get a kick out of my last name which was printed on my bib number. For much of the run I was just in survival mode. I started walking every aid station to get in enough liquids, but this tends to add 15-20 seconds per mile. I wasn't really racing and was trying not to think too much about my overall place or time. I ended up running a 3:30 marathon which is one of my slowest.

First run loop with partially unzipped jersey. Don't do this in France.

I got to race in one of my favorite-sounding French numbers dix-huit (deez wheet)!

These splits plus some long transitions add up to a 9:40 overall time. I only used a watch for the run, so I didn't know what my overall time was until hours after the race. Given the conditions and how I felt I was surprised the time wasn't slower. I did end up as the 10th male pro, but only because about 12 guys dropped for various reasons. Mainly reasons like Ironman is real extra hard when it is 95 degrees.

10th male pro still sounds pretty awesome to me and it would be if there weren't also precisely 46 amateurs and 3 female pros also ahead of me! See, it's all about how you spin it and those convenient omissions. I did end up as the first American after another American pro dropped out. Since we're laying it all out here it should be noted that the next American across the line was my friend Alyssa Godesky who was only 12 minutes behind me. She ended up 4th overall in the women's race and ensured there was at least one American up on the podium at the awards ceremony!

With Alyssa at the awards banquet

French awards banquets are pretty much like you would expect: outstanding!
I love France.

Natascha beat me, but I won't let that get in the way of her being one of my all-time favorite triathletes!

So there you have it. A spin-deconstructed race report. Good things did come out of this race, just not necessarily what I was expecting. My workouts since this race have indicated I do have really good fitness that I wasn't able to fully tap into. Racing in France was a great experience, but at the same time trying to race an international Ironman at 100% of potential is quite difficult. In retrospect the whole trip was amazing and almost certainly a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity (at least the racing professionally in Europe part!).

A shorter teaser video re-cap of the race can be found here.
Full 40 minute video of the race is here.

I need to again acknowledge that my wife was supportive enough to let me travel to France solo while she wrangled the kids during the very hectic first week of school. I don't think I would have even considered this race without the great support that I've had this year from my Ego pb Sammy's team! Don Thorpe at Aches Away massage therapy has helped manage my back issues and keep my body together for hard racing and training. Workouts from my coach at Purple Patch Fitness have helped my make the most of my limited training time. This was the first Ironman that I have done with First Endurance's new EFS Pro and that was definitely a success- great stuff, give it a try! Xterra wetsuits have kept me competitive in their excellent Vendetta wetsuits and speedsuit. Thanks again for all the support!  Next up is one more crack at that sub-9 Ironman at Beach 2 Battleship!

Monday, September 14, 2015

Aventures en France: International Cycling History Conference

As I've mentioned before, this fall semester is my first-ever sabbatical at Illinois Wesleyan University. Some of my non-academic friends thought that this meant I just didn't have to work for about half a year! To the contrary, any sabbatical project proposal must be approved by a committee of my peers at the university and then I sign an additional contract that specifies what I will accomplish during a semester away from teaching and committee meetings. My project which I introduced here, is to eventually write a book covering the history of cycling in Illinois.

As it turns out, there is exactly one academic conference per year that focuses on the history of cycling: The International Cycling History Conference (abbreviated ICHC). This conference has been around since the early 90's and brings together a wonderfully diverse group of bicycle history nuts.  The mix includes historians, museum curators, collectors, and a few students. I found the diversity of backgrounds and countries represented to be wonderfully refreshing compared to the domestic library conferences I attend every year. For the most part, I a have been tackling this new line of research in isolation since it is such a specific area of study.  Going to this conference put me in contact with most of the major authors writing in the area of bicycle history.

This spring I saw that the ICHC would be in a small town (Entraigues Sur-la-Sorgue) in southern France at the end of August. Normally it would be impossible for me to miss the first week of classes at Wesleyan, but my sabbatical gave me the flexibility to travel during this timeframe.  Well, more specifically, my sabbatical and major support from my wife who agreed to let me go to France during the first week and a half of a new school year which is incredibly hectic with two young kids (thanks once again, hun!). I think it was easier for her to agree to the trip since I wasn't going anywhere very romantic or good for couples: just Paris then rural southern France and then up through some of the most scenic wine producing regions in the world. To add to my adventures in France it turned out that there was an Ironman triathlon 2 hours (by high-speed train) north of the conference in Vichy France. Carpe Diem, two birds with one stone, and all that jazz! I'll cover the Ironman in my next post.

Bridges on the Seine River, Paris
I scheduled a day in Paris at both the beginning and end of the trip to see some of the sites and do the touristy thing. Of course, the touristy thing isn't really my shtick so I changed things up a bit by figuring out the Paris Velib bike rental system. Paris has made a concerted effort to make the city more bike friendly in the last 5-10 years.  The Velib rental system has automated check out racks that are supposed to be located roughly every 300 meters.  A bike check-out pass only costs about $2 U.S. dollars a day.  As long as you check the bike back in to a rack every 30 minutes it doesn't cost anymore.  If you keep the same bike beyond 30 minutes there are additional small charges for each half hour.  I first jumped on a Velib bike early on a Sunday morning which was a wonderful time to ride around Paris. This was vacation season for Parisians and Sunday mornings are slow in general. The city has an ok network of bike lanes- including some awesome pedestrian-only paths along the Seine river. Overall it is certainly a work in process, but it has caught on big.  The Velib bikes seem to be used more by Parisians than by tourists.  It was quite common to see both men and women in full business attire taking the bikes to and from work.  Awesome!

Velib Station!

This Parisian Pedicab was the best bicycle I saw the entire trip!

Jardin des Plantes

On the touristy front I saw the Notre Dame Cathedral which was amazing in person. Also great for someone who studied a good deal of medieval history mostly from textbooks and computer images. The scale of this cathedral was simply stunning.

Next I made my way over to the National Archives which seemed like a great stop for a librarian and historian.  This was probably the most disappointing stop of the entire trip.  The building itself was amazing, but it was sweltering inside since it has never been renovated to include air conditioning.  Because of this almost everything that was on display was a copy of the original. From an archival perspective, this the right thing to do, but historians like to see the originals!

National Archives: awesome-looking building, but not really worth stopping in considering the other Paris offerings!
Only a few blocks from the National Archives was the Picasso museum which is actually a relatively new museum in a renovated old hotel. As the name indicates almost everything across 3 large floors was all Picasso.  Well worth the stop!

Currently my favorite Picasso!
Picasso, Self-Portrait
The process of renovating an old hotel into the Picasso Museum was nearly as interesting to me as the collections! Here are the exposed roof beams of the original hotel.

After a day in Paris I headed to the high-speed train (TGV) station. Here one of the most stressful moments of the trip occurred as I kept trying to ask various officials in my broken French and English about where I should load my bike case.  According to the TGV website bikes in cases are fine. No one seemed to have ever seen a bike case before. For awhile I thought they weren't going to let me on the train.  As the train was getting ready to leave I basically just drug the things up to the top level and left it in a hallway area. After that I stopped asking questions and just acted like I knew what I was doing.

This wasn't the end of the bike case being a huge pain during the trip. I took the TGV from Paris to Avignon and then caught a regional train to the small town of Entraigues Sur-la-Sorgue. I arrived in Entraigues on a Sunday evening during a pretty hard downpour.  I had planned the trip well up to this point, but just figured I would either walk or take a bus or taxi to my hotel.  Well, being a Sunday night in a small town there were no buses or taxis. I couldn't pull up a map on my phone, so I had to text Cara back home to look at Google maps for me.  With some basic directions I headed out into the rain dragging my bike box and luggage behind me.  Of course, this didn't fit down all the sidewalks so I walked in the road until cars came and then tried to get back on the sidewalk.  The hotel ended up being a little more than a mile from the bus stop, but it was a pretty miserable mile!

I drug this 100 pounds of crap all over France.
After trudging a mile through the rain, there were some rewards!

Entraigues was a great small town in Southern France. For the cyclists out there you can see Mt. Ventoux from town. I hated to pass on riding up this classic Tour de France climb, but it did not seem wise a few days before an Ironman!

The International Cycling History Conference was four days long including a mix of presentations and excursions to nearby bicycle history sites. The conference site was chosen to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the first long distance bicycle ride from Paris to Avignon. In fact, a few of the conference participants rode this same route prior to the conference on original velocipedes (boneshakers) prior to the conference. Velocipedes were the first pedal-driven bicycles. I love to see collectors actually riding old bikes, not just putting them somewhere to look at.

Keizo celebrating the end of the Paris-Avignon Velocipede ride!
The presentations were equally fascinating. Because of the 150th anniversary, many presentations focused on very early Velocipede history (1860-1870). The only other person I knew at the conference was Carey Williams from Chicago.  He gave a very interesting presentation on the first wire-spoked velocipede wheels which -as you can imagine- was a major technological leap forward from a wooden or iron spoke wheel. If you are curious about the lineup of presentations, check out the full conference program. The presentation that I was there to deliver was: "The Forgotten Contributions of Central Illinois to the Bicycle Boom of the 1890's." I needed some subset of my larger research that could be delivered in about 20 minutes. This is truly mostly forgotten history. The Peoria-area in particular was a major producer of bicycles during the 1890's. After the presentation I learned that there are some posters of Peoria bicycle companies in French museum collections! My presentation (minus all my commentary) is located here.

My presentation! (Photo credit: Lorne Shields)

Every day at the conference there was a display of old bicycles and bicycle posters.

One afternoon we took a trip back to Avignon to visit a number of sites with historical significance to cycling. As luck would have it, it was also Liberation Day (commemorating the WWII liberation of Avignon by French and American forces) and there were parades with old American army jeeps and tanks and well as people dressed as American soldiers! Nice for our country to be remembered for a positive historical contribution rather than more recent controversies like spying on French officials emails and not sending major officials to the march following the Charlie Hebdo killings.

Walls of Avignon
Liberation Day Parade in Avignon

Local historian/author/collector Claude Reynaud had portions of his collection on display each day at the conference site.  This included a number of posters and old bikes.  One of the highlights of the entire trip though was an evening excursion to Claude's museum. His museum is in a wonderful, rural, 19th century mansion (Chateau de Bosc). The highlight of the collection is rare old bikes, but he also has many motorcycles as well as the modern art collected by his wife. The mansion grounds also include extensive organic vineyards.

 Chateau de Bosc: Bicycle Museum
2015 ICHC Conference attendees outside Chateau de Bosc.

Where the magic happens!

Very early examples of hobby horses: precursors to the Velocipede

This gorgeous French Velocipede was my favorite in the collection. Check out all the intricate detail below.

This American-made Evans motorcycle clearly shows the direct transformation from bicycle to motorcycle.
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Relative to my research was this early Henderson motorcycle made by Excelsior Motor Manufacturing. Schwinn purchased Excelsior and had a profitable line of motorcycles for quite a few years.

Some of the modern art was quite good as well. This piece is made from plastic drainage pipe.

After spending time with the museum collections we were treated to wine from the vineyards and traditional French paella which is rice, seafood, chicken and seasonings cooked in huge pans. We ate and drank outside beneath old fir trees. Afterwards I posted this on Facebook:

Committing to studies in the humanities is a difficult and not at all profitable career path. We do it because of passion for our subject matter and a belief that our work remains vital. It is almost never glamorous, but tonight was a rare exception. My interest in bicycle history has brought me to southern France to a bicycle/motorcycle/contemporary art museum housed in a 19th century French mansion. Did I mention there is also a large, organic vineyard on the property? Amazing.

Dinner: a traditional French Paella! (Photo credit: Lorne Shields)

That pretty much sums it up! The ICHC was a great experience overall. Next year the conference is in New Haven, Connecticut which should make for easier travel! After the conference I caught a bus from Entraigues to a train in Avignon to the TGV station then to Lyon where I rented a car and drove 2 hours to Vichy where I raced an Ironman triathlon...but I'll save that story for the next installment! In the meantime, I have lots more photos in this album!